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2016年12月英语四级真题及答案解析完整版
boboju人气6737日期16/12/19

2016年12月英语四级真题及答案解析完整版

Part I Writing (30 minutes)
第一篇
For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay. Suppose you have two options upon graduation: one is to work in a state-owned business and the other in a joint venture. You are to make a choice between the two. Write an essay to explain the reasons for your choice. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

破题思路:
第一段:话题描述。
第二段:表明观点+阐述原因。
第三段:观点结论。

范文:

Job hunting becomes increasingly tough for college students, for it is not only hard to be hired with a satisfying salary, but also difficult to choose a suitable work place. More and more students are to face the options between a state-owned business and a joint venture. As for me, I definitely prefer the latter.

From a personal perspective, the joint venture generally offers a higher salary than the state-owned enterprise, which tends to meet the high expectation from me. As is universally known, with more money paid, more passion will be devoted to work. On the community level, the joint venture always possesses a more cooperative meanwhile more competitive working atmosphere, making every employee fully involved in working. And I strongly believe that competition brings about progress.

In conclusion, the joint venture is much more suitable for me to work in than the state-owned business, for I prefer a higher salary, as well as a more competitive atmosphere.

第二篇(就业还是创业)

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay. Suppose you have two options upon graduation: one is to find a job somewhere and the other to start a business of your own. You are to make a decision. Write an essay to explain the reasons for your decision. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

破题思路:
第一段:话题描述。
第二段:表明观点+阐述原因。
第三段:观点结论。

范文:

Job hunting becomes increasingly tough for college students, for more college graduates bring about much fiercer competition. Consequently, starting a business of one's own becomes another alternative. But for me, I still prefer finding a job somewhere.

From a personal perspective, a good start for one's own business requires plenty amount of money together with adequate work experience, but as college students, we often lack the latter. On a community level, we are able to get involved in a more complex relationship in a larger work place which provides us with necessary skills in communication as well as cooperation with others. In a larger sense, with more and more start-ups worldwide, the young entrepreneurs as college graduates are under even greater pressure than finding a job elsewhere competing with other job hunters.

As the old saying goes: "Lay a solid foundation, and the time will come for you to shine!" Therefore, we have to accumulate as enough experience as possible by working for others, and wait for the right time to start our own business.

第三篇(就业还是考研/读书)

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay. Suppose you have two options upon graduation: one is to take a job in a company and the other to go to a graduate school. You are to make a choice between the two. Write an essay to explain the reasons for your choice. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

破题思路:
第一段:话题描述。
第二段:表明观点+阐述原因。
第三段:观点结论。

范文:

Job hunting becomes increasingly tough for college graduates, for the larger number of graduates doesn't balance with the limited job opportunities. As a result, more and more graduates choose to further their study. For me, I prefer going to a graduate school to continue my education.

From a personal perspective, further education can equip me with more solid and profound knowledge for my future job, so the education in a graduate school can actually serve as a stepping stone in my future job hunting. On a community level, the experience of internship during school can also well develop my social skills of communicating and cooperating with my workmates. In a larger sense, the increasingly competitive job market is gradually raising its standards for the job hunters. Taking all these into account, the advantages seem to lie with the candidates with higher degrees.

As the famous saying goes: "Slow down to speed up." That is to say, further study may slow us down when entering the job market, but it does speed us up on our way to success!


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Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension (25minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 1 to 2 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

1.
A) It was dangerous to live in.
B) It was going to be renovated.
C) He could no longer pay the rent.
D) He had sold it to the royal family.

2.
A) A strike.
B) A storm.
C) A forest fire.
D) A terrorist attack.

Questions 3 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

3.
A) They lost contact with the emergency department.
B) They were trapped in an underground elevator.
C) They were injured by suddenly falling rocks.
D) They sent calls for help via a portable radio.

4.
A) They tried hard to repair the elevator.
B) They released the details of the accident.
C) They sent supplies to keep the miners warm.
D) They provided the miners with food and water.

Questions 5 to 7 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

5.
A) Raise postage rates.
B) Improve its services.
C) Redesign delivery routes.
D) Close some of its post offices.

6.
A) Shortening business hours.
B) Closing offices on holidays.
C) Stopping mail delivery on Saturdays.
D) Computerizing mail sorting processes.

7.
A) Many post office staff will lose their jobs.
B) Many people will begin to complain.
C) Taxpayers will be very pleased.
D) A lot of controversy will arise.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation you will hear four questions. Both the conversations and the question-s will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

8.
A) He will be kept from promotion.
B) He will go through retraining.
C) He will be given a warning.
D) He will lose part of his pay.

9.
A) He is always on time.
B) He is a trustworthy guy.
C) He is an experienced press operator.
D) He is on good terms with his workmates.

10.
A) She is a trade union representative.
B) She is in charge of public relations.
C) She is a senior manager of the shop.
D) She is better at handling such matters.

11.
A) He is skilled and experienced.
B) He is very close to the manager.
C) He is always trying to stir up trouble.
D) He is always complaining about low wages.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

12.
A) Open.
B) Selfish.
C) Friendly.
D) Reserved.

13.
A) They stay quiet.
B) They read a book.
C) They talk about the weather.
D) They chat with fellow passengers.

14.
A) She was always treated as a foreigner.
B) She was eager to visit an English castle.
C) She was never invited to a colleague's home.
D) She was unwilling to make friends with workmates.

15.
A) Houses are much more quiet.
B) Houses provide more privacy.
C) They want to have more space.
D) They want a garden of their own.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).Then mark the corresponding letter onAnswer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

16.
A) They don't have much choice of jobs.
B) They are likely to get much higher pay.
C) They don't have to go through job interviews.
D) They will automatically be given hiring priority.

17.
A) Ask their professors for help.
B) Look at school bulletin boards.
C) Visit the school careers service.
D) Go through campus newspapers.

18.
A) Helping students find the books and journals they need.
B) Supervising study spaces to ensure a quiet atmosphere.
C) Helping students arrange appointments with librarians.
D) Providing students with information about the library.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

19.
A) It tastes better.
B) It is easier to grow.
C) It may be sold at a higher price.
D) It can better survive extreme weathers.

20.
A) It is healthier than green tea.
B) It can grow in drier soil.
C) It will replace green tea one day.
D) It is immune to various diseases.

21.
A) It has been well received by many tea drinkers.
B) It does not bring the promised health benefits.
C) It has made tea farmers' life easier.
D) It does not have a stable market.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

22.
A) They need decorations to show their status.
B) They prefer unique objects of high quality.
C) They decorate their homes themselves.
D) They care more about environment.

23.
A) They were proud of their creations.
B) They could only try to create at night.
C) They made great contributions to society.
D) They focused on the quality of their products.

24.
A) Make wise choices.
B) Identify fake crafts.
C) Design handicrafts themselves.
D) Learn the importance of creation.

25.
A) To boost the local economy.
B) To attract foreign investments.
C) To arouse public interest in crafts.
D) To preserve the traditional culture.

听力答案:

短篇新闻
1. [A] It was dangerous to live in.
2. [B] A storm
3. [B] They were trapped in an underground elevator.
4. [C] They sent supplies to keep the miners warm.
5. [D] Close some of its post office.
6. [C] Stopping mail delivery on Saturdays.
7. [A] Many post office staff will lose their jobs.

长对话
8. [D] He will lose part of his pay.
9. [B] He is a trustworthy guy.
10.[D] She is better at handling such matters.
11.[C] He is always trying to stir up trouble.
12. [D] Reserved
13. [A] They stay quiet
14. [C] She was never invited to a colleague’s home.
15. [B] Houses provide more privacy

短文听力
16. [D] They will automatically be given hiring priority.
17. [C] Visit the school careers service.
18. [B] Supervising study spaces to ensure a quiet atmosphere.
19. [C] It may be sold at a higher price.
20. [A] It is healthier than green tee.
21. [D] It does not have a stable market.
22. [B] They prefer unique objects of high quality.
23. [B] They could only try to create at night.
24. [A] Make wise choices.
25. [A] To boost the local economy.


以下为听力原文
短篇新闻2

Section A - 2
Rescue efforts were underway Thursday morning for 17 miners who were stuck in an elevator below ground at a Cargill rock salt mine near Lansing, New York, according to Marcia Lynch.
Public information officer with Tompkins County’s emergency response department, emergency workers have made contact with the miners via a radio. And they all appear to be uninjured, said Jessica Verfuss, the emergency department’s assistant director.
Crews have managed to provide heat packs and blankets to the miners so that they can keep warm during the rescue operation, Verfuss said. Details about what led to the workers’ being trapped in the elevator went immediately available. The mine, along New York’s Cayuga Lake, processes salt used for road treatment. It produces about 2 million tons of salt that is shipped to more than 1,500 places in the northeastern United States, the rock salt mine is one of three operated by Cargill with the other two in Louisiana and Ohio.
Q3. What does the news report say about the salt miners?
Q4.What did the rescue team do?


短篇新闻3
Section A - 3
The U.S. Postal Service announced today that it is considering closing about 3,700 post offices over the next year because of falling revenues.
Facing an $8.3 billion budget deficit this year, closing post officers is one of several proposals the Postal Service has put forth recently to cut costs. Last week, for example, Postmaster General Pat Donahoe announced plans to stop mail delivery on Saturdays, a move he says could save $3 billion annually.
“We are losing revenue as we speak,” Donahoe said. “We do not want taxpayer money. We want to be self-sufficient. So like any other business you have to make choices.”
Dean Granholm the vice president for delivery and post office operations said the first waves of closings would begin this fall. He estimated that about 3,000 postmasters, 500 station managers and between 500 and 1,000 postal clerks could lose their jobs.
Q5.What is the U.S. Postal Service planning to do?
Q6.What measure has been planned to save costs?
Q7.What will happen when the proposed measure come into effect?


长对话1&2
Conversation 1
A: Mrs. Hampton, we've got trouble in the press room this morning.
B: Oh dear. What about?
A: One of the press operators arrived an hour and a half late.
B: But that's a straightforward affair. He will simply lose part of his pay. That's why we have a clock-in system.
A: But the point is the man was clocked-in at 8 o'clock. We have John standing by the time clock, and he swears he saw nothing irregular.
B: Is John reliable?
A: Yes, he is. That's why we chose him for the job.
B: Have you spoken to the man who was late?
A: Not yet. I thought I'd have a word with you first. He's a difficult man, and I think there's been some trouble on the shop floor. I've got a feeling that trade union representative is behind this. The manager told me that Jack Green's been very active around the shop the last few days.
B: Well, what do you want me to do?
A: I was wondering if you'd see Smith, the man who was late, because you are so much better at handling things like this.
B: Oh, alright. I'll see him. I must say I agree with you about there being bad feelings in the works. I've had the idea for some time that Jack Green's been busy stirring things up in connection with the latest wage claim. He's always trying to make trouble. Well, I'll get the manager to send Smith up here.
Q8. What will happen to the press operator who was late for the work according to the woman?
Q9. What does the man say about John who stands by the time clock?
Q10. Why does the man suggest the woman see the worker who was late?
Q11. What does the woman say about Jack Green?


Conversation 2
A: Our topic today is about somethings that foreigners nearly always say when they visit Britain. It's 'Why are the British so cold?' And they're talking about the British personality – the famous British 'reserve'. It means that we aren't very friendly, we aren't very open.
B: So do you think it's true?
A: It's a difficult one. So many people who visit Britain say it's difficult to make friends with British people. They say we're cold, reserved, unfriendly...
B: I think it's true. Look at Americans or Australians. They speak the same language, but they're much more open. And you see it when you travel, people - I mean strangers - speak to you on the street or on the train. British people seldom speak on the train. Or the bus. Not in London, anyway.
A: 'Not in London'. That's it. Capital cities are full of tourists and are never very friendly. People are different in other parts of the country.
B: Not completely. I met a woman once, an Italian. She's been working in Manchester for two years,
and no one - not one of her colleagues - had ever invited her to their home. They were friendly to her at work, but nothing else. She couldn't believe it. She said that would never happen in Italy.
A: You know what they say – 'an Englishman's home is his castle'. It’s really difficult to get inside.
B: Yeah. It's about being private. You go home to your house and your garden and you close the door. It's your place.
A: That's why the British don't like flats. They prefer to live in houses.
B: That’s true.
Q12. What do foreigners generally think of British people according to the woman?
Q13. What may British people typically do one the train according to the man?
Q14. What does the man say about the Italian woman working in Manchester?
Q15. Why do British people prefer houses to flats?


听力篇章
Passage One
In college, time is scarce, and consequently, very precious. At the same time, expenses in college pile up surprisingly quickly. A part time job is a good way to balance costs while ensuring there is enough time left over for both academic subjects and after-class activities.
If you are a college student looking for a part time job, the best place to start your job search is right on campus. There are tons of on-campus job opportunities, and as a student, you’ll automatically be given hiring priority. Plus, on-campus jobs eliminate commuting time, and could be a great way to connect with academic and professional resources at your university. Check with your school’s career service or employment office for help to find a campus job. Of course, there are opportunities for part-time work off-campus, too. If you spend a little time digging for the right part time jobs, you’ll save yourself time when you find a job that leaves you with enough time to get your school work done, too. If you are a college student looking for work but worry you won’t have enough time to devote to academic subjects, consider working as a study hall or a library monitor. Responsibilities generally include supervising study spaces to ensure that a quiet atmosphere is maintained. It’s a pretty easy job, but one with lots of downtime-which means you will have plenty of time to catch up on reading, do homework or study for an exam.
Q16: What does the speaker say about college students applying for on-campus jobs?
Q17: What can students do to find a campus job according to the speaker?
Q18: What does the speaker say is a library monitor’s responsibility?


Passage Two
Agricultural workers in green tea fields near Mt. Kenya are gathering the tea leaves. It is beautiful to see. The rows of tea bushes are straight. All appears to be well. But the farmers who planted the bushes are worried. Nelson Kibara is one of them. He has been growing tea in the Kerugoya area for 40 years.
He says the prices this year have been so low that he has made almost no profit. He says he must grow different kinds of tea if he is to survive.
Mr. Kibara and hundreds of other farmers have been removing some of their tea bushes and planting a new kind of tea developed by the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya. Its leaves are purple and brown. When the tea is boiled, the drink has a purple color. Medical researchers have studied the health benefits of the new tea. They say it is healthier than green tea and could be sold for a price that is three to four times higher than the price of green tea.
But Mr. Kibara says he has not received a higher price for his purple tea crop.
He says the market for the tea is unstable and he is often forced to sell his purple tea for the same price as green tea leaves. He says there are not enough buyers willing to pay more for the purple tea.
Q19. Why have tea farmers in Kenya decided to grow purple tea?
Q20. What do researchers say about purple tea?
Q21. What does Mr. Kibara find about purple tea?


Passage Three
Today's consumers want beautiful handcrafted s to wear and to have for their home environment. They prefer something unique and they demand quality. Craftsmen today are meeting this demand. People and homes are showing great change as more and more unique handcrafted items become available. Handcrafts are big business. No long does a good craftsman have to work in a job he dislikes all day and then try to create at night. He has earned his professional status. He is now a respected member of society. Parts of the fun of being a craftsman is meeting other craftsmen. They love to share their ideas and materials and help others find markets for their work. Craftsmen have helped educate consumers to make wise choices. They help them become aware of design and technique. They help them relate their choice to its intended use. They often involve consumers in trying the craft themselves. When a group of craftsmen expends to include more members, a small craft organization is formed. Such an organization does a lot in training workshops in special media, craft marketing techniques, craft fairs and sales, festivals, TV appearances and demonstrations. State art councils help sponsor local arts and crafts festivals which draw crowds of tourist consumers. This boosts the local economy considerably because tourists not only buy crafts, but they also use the restaurants and hotels and other services of the area.
Q22. What does the speaker say about today's consumers?
Q23. What does the speaker say about a good craftsman in the past?
Q24. What do craftsmen help consumers do?
Q25. Why do state art councilshelp sponsor local arts and crafts festivals?


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Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Section A

Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item onAnswer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Many men and women have long bought into the idea that there are “male” and “female” brains, believing that explains just about every difference between the sexes. A new study 26 that belief, questioning whether brains really can be distinguished by gender.

In the study, Tel Aviv University researchers 27 for sex differences the entire human brain.

And what did they find? Not much. Rather than offer evidence for 28 brains as “male” or “female,” research shows that brains fall into a wide range, with most people falling right in the middle.

Daphna Joel, who led the study, said her research found that while there are some gender-based 29 , many different types of brain can't always be distinguished by gender.

While the “average” male and “average” female brains were 30 different, you couldn't tell it by looking at individual brain scans. Only a small 31 of people had “all-male” or “all-female” characteristics.

Larry Cahill, an American neuroscientist(神经科学家), said the study is an important addition to a growing body of research questioning 32 beliefs about gender and brain function. But he cautioned against concluding from this study that all brains are the same, 33 of gender.

“There's a mountain of evidence 34 the importance of sex influences at all levels of brain function,” he told The Seattle Times.

If anything, he said, the study 35 that gender plays a very important role in the brain “even when we are not clear exactly how.”

A) abnormal
I) regardless
B) applied
J) searched
C) briefly

K) similarities
D) categorizing
L) slightly
E) challenges
M) suggests

F) figure
N) tastes
G) percentage
O) traditional
H) proving


Section A

26. E) challenge
空前主语为A new study,故此处应选一个动词第三人称单数作谓语,符合的词有E) challenges, M) suggests, 和 N) tastes,根据空后questioning,得出该空应填E) challenges 挑战,质疑。

27. J) searched
search for 为固定搭配,意为“寻找,搜索”,所给词汇中只有J) searched符合题意。

28. D) categorizing
空前是介词for,空后为名词brains,再根据后面的内容as “male” or “female”,初步判断该空应该填入动词的-ing形式。浏览选项,只有D)和H) 符合。根据搭配及语义,D)为答案,categorizing…as… 意为“把……分为……”。

29. K) similarities
根据空前的句子 “there are some gender-based…”,该空应填入名词复数形式。浏览选项,E), K), N)符合。再根据句意及空格后的句子“不同类型的大脑并不一直由性别区分”,该空应填入K) similarities “相似之处”。

30. L) slightly
空格前为be动词were,后为形容词different,很显然该空的词是来修饰different的,因此应填入副词。结合文意可知,虽然普通男性和普通女性的大脑差别很小,但是通过查看脑部扫描光片也没法对其进行区分。slightly为副词,意为“轻微地,稍微”,所以应填入L)。

31. G) percentage
空格前为形容词small,后为of people,因此应填入名词。结合文意可知,只有一小部分人具备“完全男性”或“完全女性”的特征。percentage意为“百分比”,a small percentage of…意为“一小部分”,所以应填入G)。

32. O) traditional
该空后为名词beliefs, 因此,该空应填入一个形容词,根据文意可知,很多研究都是在质疑“人们对于性别和大脑功能之间关系的传统理解”,因此,该处应选O) traditional传统的。

33. I)regardless
该空考查短语regardless of的含义。根据“他警告不要轻易给出以下结论:所有的大脑都是一样的,不论性别”可知,该空应填入I)regardless, 构成短语regardless of,意为“不管,不顾”。

34. H) proving
a mountain of evidence意为“大量的证据”,proving为现在分词作后置定语修饰evidence。

35. M) suggests
该句中,the study为主语,that引导的宾语从句作宾语,故此空应填入一个动词来作谓语,结合上下文,应选suggests,意为“暗示,表明”。


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Section B


Directions:In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Can Burglars Jam Your Wireless Security System?

[A]Any product that promises to protect your home deserves careful examination. So it isn't surprising that you'll find plenty of strong opinions about the potential vulnerabilities of popular home-security systems.

[B]The most likely type of burglary(入室盗窃)by far is the unsophisticated crime of opportunity, usually involving a broken window or some forced entry. According to the FBI, crimes like these accounted roughly two-thirds of all household burglaries in the US in 2013.The wide majority of the rest were illegal, unforced entries that resulted from something like a window being left open. The odds of a criminal using technical means to bypass a security system are so small that the FBI doesn't even track those statistics.

[C]One of the main theoretical home-security concerns is whether or not a given system is vulnerable to being blocked from working altogether. With wired setups, the fear is that a burglar(入室盗贼)might be able to shut your system down simply by cutting the right cable. With a wireless setup, you stick battery-powered sensors up around your home that keep an eye on windows, doors, motion, and more. If they detect something wrong while the system is armed, they'll transmit a wireless alert signal to a base station that will then raise the alarm. That approach will eliminate most cord-cutting concerns—but what about their wireless equivalent, jamming? With the right device tuned to the right frequency, what's to stop a thief from jamming your setup and blocking that alert signal from ever reaching the base station?

[D]Jamming concerns are nothing new, and they're not unique to security systems. Any device that's built to receive a wireless signal at a specific frequency can be overwhelmed by a stronger signal coming in on the same frequency. For comparison, let's say you wanted to “jam” a conversation between two people—all you'd need to do is yell in the listener's ear.

[E] Security devices are required to list the frequencies they broadcast on—that means that a potential thief can find what they need to know with minimal Googling. They will, however, need so know what system they're looking for. If you have a sign in your yard declaring what setup you use, that'd point them in the right direction, though at that point, we're talking about a highly targeted, semi-sophisticated attack, and not the sort forced-entry attack that makes up the majority of burglaries. It's easier to find and acquire jamming equipment for some frequencies than it is for others.

[F] Wireless security providers will often take steps to help combat the threat of jamming attacks. SimpliSafe, winner of our Editor's Choice distinction, utilizes a special system that's capable of separating incidental RF interference from targeted jamming attacks. When the system thinks it's being jammed, it'll notify you via push alert(推送警报). From there, it's up to you to sound the alarm manually.

[G] SimpliSafe was singled out in one recent article on jamming, complete with a video showing the entire system being effectively bypassed with handheld jamming equipment. After taking appropriate measures to contain the RF interference to our test lab, we tested the attack out for ourselves, and were able to verify that it's possible with the right equipment. However, we also verified that SimpliSafe's anti-jamming system works. It caught us in the act, sent an alert to my smartphone, and also listed our RF interference on the system's event log. The team behind the article and video in question make no mention of the system, or whether or not in detected them.

[H]We like the unique nature of that software. It means that a thief likely wouldn't be able to Google how the system works, then figure out a way around it. Even if they could, SimpliSafe claims that its system is always evolving, and that it varies slightly from system to system, which means there wouldn't be a universal magic formula for cracking it. Other systems also seem confident on the subject of jamming. The team at Frontpoint addresses the issue in a blog on its site, citing their own jam protection software and claiming that there aren't any documented cases of successful jam attack since the company began offering wireless security sensors in the 1980s.

[I] Jamming attacks are absolutely possible. As said before, with the right equipment and the right know-how, it's possible to jam any wireless transmission. But how probable is it that someone will successfully jam their way into your home and steal your stuff?

[J] Let's imagine that you live in a small home with a wireless security setup that offers a functional anti-jamming system. First, a thief is going to need to target your home, specifically. Then, he's going to need to know the technical details of your system and acquire the specific equipment necessary for jamming your specific setup. Presumably, you keep your doors locked at night and while you're away. So the thief will still need to break in. That means defeating the lock somehow, or breaking a window. He'll need to be jamming you at this point, as a broken window or opened door would normally release the alarm. So, too, would the motion detectors in your home, so the thief will need to continue jamming once he's inside and searching for things to steal. However, he'll need to do so without tripping the anti-jamming system, the details of which he almost certainly does now have access to.

[K]At the end of the day, these kinds of systems are primarily designed to protect against the sort of opportunistic smash-and-grab attack that makes up the majority of burglaries. They're also only a single layer in what should ideally be a many-sided approach to securing your home, one that includes common sense things like sound locks and proper exterior lighting at night. No system is impenetrable, and none can promise to eliminate the worst case completely. Every one of them has vulnerabilities that a knowledgeable thief could theoretically exploit. A good system is one that keeps that worst-case setting as improbable as possible while also offering strong protection in the event of a less-extraordinary attack.

36. It is possible for burglars to make jamming attacks with the necessary equipment and skill.

37. Interfering with a wireless security system is similar to interfering with a conversation.

38. A burglar has to continuously jam the wireless security device to avoid triggering the alarm, both inside and outside the house.

39. SimpliSafe provides devices that are able to distinguish incidental radio interference from targeted jamming attacks.

40. Only a very small proportion of burglaries are committed by technical means.

41. It is difficult to crack SimpliSafe as its system keeps changing.

42. Wireless devices will transmit signals so as to activate the alarm once something wrong is detected.

43. Different measures should be taken to protect one's home from burglary in addition to the wireless security system.

44. SimpliSafe's device can send a warning to the house owner's cellphone.

45. Burglars can easily get a security device's frequency by Internet search.


Section B
36. [I]对应关键词jamming attacks, 和equipment and skill在I段落中同时出现了两个关键词。
37. [D]对应关键词wireless security system, 和conversation在原文中有复现.
38. [J] 选项中wireless security system,和triggering the alarm可以在J选项中找到对应.
39. [F]SimpliSafe, 大写名词很好定位,在加上复现的distinguish,radio interference可以锁定选项F。
40. [B]根据small proportion可以确定唯一的选项B
41. [H]对应关键词keeps changing
42. [C]对应关键词transmit signals, 和activate.
43. [K]根据选项different measures只在K段落中出现了。
44. [G]选项cellphones是最关键的定位词,可以在G选项中找到复现。
45. [E]选项frequent对应了段落的frequency。


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Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

As a person who writes about food and drink for a living. I couldn't tell you the first thing about Bill Perry or whether the beers he sells are that great. But I can tell you that I like this guy. That's because he plans to ban tipping in favor of paying his servers an actual living wage.

I hate tipping.

I hate it because it's an obligation disguised as an option. I hate it for the post-dinner math it requires of me. But mostly, I hate tipping because I believe I would be in a better place if pay decisions regarding employees were simply left up to their employers, as is the custom in virtually every other industry.

Most of you probably think that you hate tipping, too. Research suggests otherwise. You actually love tipping! You like to feel that you have a voice in how much money your server makes. No matter how the math works out, you persistently view restaurants with voluntary tipping systems as being a better value, which makes it extremely difficult for restaurants and bars to do away with the tipping system.

One argument that you tend to hear a lot from the pro-tipping crowd seems logical enough: the service is better when waiters depend on tips, presumably because they see a benefit to successfully veiling their contempt for you. Well, if this were true, we would all be slipping a few 100-dollar bills to our doctors on the way out their doors, too. But as it turns out, waiters see only a tiny bump in tips when they do an exceptional job compared to a passable one. Waiters, keen observers of humanity that they are, are catching on to this; in one poll, a full 30% said they didn't believe the job they did had any impact on the tips they received.

So come on, folks: get on board with ditching the outdated tip system. Pay a little more upfront for your beer or burger. Support Bill Perry's pub, and any other bar or restaurant that doesn't ask you to do drunken math.

46. What can we learn about Bill Perry from the passage?
A) He runs a pub that serves excellent beer.
B) He intends to get rid of the tipping practice.
C) He gives his staff a considerable sum for tips.
D) He lives comfortably without getting any tips.

47. What is the main reason why the author hates tipping?
A) It sets a bad example for other industries.
B) It adds to the burden of ordinary customers.
C) It forces the customer to compensate the waiter.
D) It poses a great challenge for customers to do math.

48. Why do many people love tipping according to the author?
A) They help improve the quality of the restaurants they dine in.
B) They believe waiters deserve such rewards for good service.
C) They want to preserve a wonderful tradition of the industry.
D) They can have some say in how much their servers earn.

49. What have some waiters come to realize according to a survey?

A) Service quality has little effect on tip size.
B) It is in human mature to try to save on tips.
C) Tips make it more difficult to please customers.
D) Tips benefit the boss rather that the employees.

50. What does the author argue for in the passage?
A) Restaurants should calculate the tips for customers.
B) Customers should pay more tips to help improve service.
C) Waiters deserve better than just relying on tips for a living.
D) Waiters should be paid by employers instead of customers.


Section C
passage one

46. [B] He intends to get rid of the tipping practice.
根据题目中的Bill Perry这个专有名词,我们可以定位到文中的第一段话。在But后面有提到“我能告诉你我喜欢这个小伙子。因为他打算禁止付小费这种情况,而赞成给服务员实际的工资”。B选项和这句话的含义接近,get rid of意为“摆脱”,和ban“禁止”含义相近;plan to和intend to含义一样。所以正确答案为B.

47. [C] It forces the customer to compensate the waiter.
根据题干中的关键词the author hates tipping和main reason可以返回原文,定位到第三段。文中说“我讨厌它,因为它将义务伪装成一种选择。”既然是义务,那必然是强迫顾客去做的事情,这和C选项的含义较为接近。

48. [D] They can have some say in how much their servers earn.
根据关键词many people love tipping返回原文,我们可以定位至第四段。根据文中第二行的You like to feel that you have a voice in how much money your server makes.可知,这题应该选择D选项。

49. [A] Services quality has little effect on tip size.
文中问的是调查中一些服务员的观点,这在第五段的最后一句话中有所体现,文中说:一些服务员不认为他们的工作会受到收到的消费的影响。

50. [D] Waiters should be paid by employers instead of customers.
本题问作者的观点,切记文中无人认领的观点便是作者的观点。在第六段的末尾有提到说,作者支持Bill Perry的观点,而Bill的观点就和D选项是近义表达。


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Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

In the past, falling oil prices have given a boost to the world economy, but recent forecasts for global growth have been toned down, even as oil prices sink lower and lower. Does that mean the link between lower oil prices and growth has weakened?

Some experts say there are still good reasons to believe cheap oil should heat up the world economy. Consumers have more money in their pockets when they're paying less at the pump. They spend that money on other things, which stimulates the economy.

The biggest gains go to countries that import most of their oil like China, Japan, and India, But doesn't the extra money in the pockets of those countries' consumers mean an equal loss in oil producing countries, cancelling out the gains? Not necessarily, says economic researcher Sara Johnson. “Many oil producers built up huge reserve funds when prices were high, so when prices fall they will draw on their reserves to support government spending and subsidies(补贴)for their consumers.”

But not all oil producers have big reserves, In Venezuela, collapsing oil prices have sent its economy into free-fall.

Economist Carl Weinberg believes the negative effects of plunging oil prices are overwhelming the positive effects of cheaper oil. The implication is a sharp decline in global trade, which has plunged partly because oil-producing nations can't afford to import as much as they used to.

Sara Johnson acknowledges that the global economic benefit from a fall in oil prices today is likely lower than it was in the past. One reason is that more countries are big oil producers now, so the nations suffering from the price drop account for a larger share of the global economy.

Consumers, in the U.S. at least, are acting cautiously with the savings they're getting at the gas pump, as the memory of the recent great recession is still fresh in their mind. And a number of oil-producing countries are trimming their gasoline subsidies and raising taxes, so the net savings for global consumers is not as big as the oil price plunge might suggest.

51. What does the author mainly discuss in the passage?
A) The reasons behind the plunge of oil prices.
B) Possible ways to stimulate the global economy.
C) The impact of cheap oil on global economic growth.
D) The effect of falling oil prices on consumer spending.

52. Why do some experts believe cheap oil will stimulate the global economy?
A) Manufacturers can produce consumer goods at a much lower cost.
B) Lower oil prices have always given a big boost to the global economy.
C) Oil prices may rise or fall but economic laws are not subject to change.
D) Consumers will spend their saving from cheap oil on other commodities.

53. What happens in many oil-exporting countries when oil prices go down?
A) They suspend import of necessities from overseas.
B) They reduce production drastically to boost oil prices.
C) They use their money reserves to back up consumption.
D) They try to stop their economy from going into free-fall.

54. How does Carl Weinberg view the current oil price plunge?
A) It is one that has seen no parallel in economic history.
B) Its negative effects more than cancel out its positive effects.
C) It still has a chance to give rise to a boom in the global economy.
D) Its effects on the global economy go against existing economic laws.

55. Why haven't falling oil prices boosted the global economy as they did before?
A) People are not spending all the money they save on gas.
B) The global economy is likely to undergo another recession.
C) Oil importers account for a larger portion of the global economy.
D) People the world over are afraid of a further plunge in oil prices.

passage two

51. [C] The impact of cheap oil on global economic growth.
本题是主旨题,原文第一段表示“过去油价下降总是刺激世界经济增长,但是即使现在油价下降越来越多,最新对经济增长的预测却不容乐观,这意味着更低的油价和增长之间的关系削弱了吗?”这第一段点明了主题,后面的段落都是在讨论油价下降为什么以前可以刺激经济增长,而现在却不再能刺激经济增长了。可以看出是C是正确答案。

52. [D] Consumers will spend their savings from cheap oil on other commodities.
解析:根据原文第二段 “some experts say there are still good reasons to...They spend that money on other things, which stimulates the economy”,可以看出是D正确选项。

53. [C] They use their money reserves to back up consumption.
解析:根据原文第三段中“draw on their reserves to support government spending and subsidies for their consumers”,可以看出C是正确选项。

54. [B] Its negative effects more than cancel out its positive effects.
解析:根据原文第五段中“the negative effects of plunging oil prices are overwhelming the positive effects of cheaper oil”可以看出B是正确选项。

55. [C] Oil importers account for a larger portion of the global economy.
解析:根据原文第六段中“so the nations suffering from the price drop account for a larger share of the global economy”,可以看出是C正确选项。

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Part IV Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minted to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

题目一:
在中国文化中,红色通常象征着好运、长寿和幸福。在春节和其他喜庆场合,红色到处可见。人们把现金作为礼物送给家人或亲朋好友时,通常放在红信封中。红色在中国流行的另一个原因是人们把它与中国革命和共产党相联系。然而,红色并不总是代表好运和快乐。因为从前死者的名字常用红色书写,用红墨水书写中国人名被看成是一种冒犯行为。

答案:
The color of red in Chinese culture usually means good luck, longevity and happiness. Red can be found everywhere during Chinese Spring Festival and other joyous occasions. Cashes often in red envelopes are sent to family members or close friends as gifts. Its popularity can also be attributed the fact that people accociate it with Chinese revolution and Communist Party. However, it does not always equal to good luck and joy in that the name of the dead used to be written in red. Using red ink to write names of Chinese people were seen as an offense.

题目二:
随着中国的改革开放,如今很多年轻人都喜欢西式婚礼。新娘在婚礼上穿着白色婚纱,因为白色被认为是纯洁的象征。然而,在中国传统文化中,白色经常是葬礼上使用的颜色。因此务必记住,百花一定不要用作祝人康复的礼物,尤其不要送给老年人或危重病人。同样,礼金也不能装在白色的信封里,而要装在红色的信封里。

答案:
With the Reform and Opening-up of China, many young people nowadays like to hold western wedding ceremonies. The bride wears white wedding gown because white is considered to symbolize purity. However, in tradition Chinese culture, white is the color for funerals. So, do bear in mind, white flowers should not be used as a gift to celebrate someone’s recovery, especially not for the aged or those who are seriously ill. Similarly, cash, as a gift, should be enclosed in red envelopes rather than white ones.

题目三:
在中国文化中,黄颜色是一种很重要的颜色,因为它具有独特的象征意义。在封建(feudal)社会中,它象征统治者的权利和权威。那时,黄色是专为皇帝使用的颜色,皇家宫殿全都漆成黄色,黄袍总是黄色的,而普通老百姓是禁止穿黄色衣服的。在中国,黄色也是收获的象征。秋天庄稼成熟时,田野变得一片金黄。人们兴高采烈,庆祝丰收。

答案:
In Chinese culture, yellow is a very important color because of its unique symbolic meaning. In feudal society, it symbolizes the rulers' power and authority. At that time, yellow was the color for the emperor. The royal palace was entirely painted yellow and the imperial robe was always yellow too, but common people were forbidden to wear yellow clothes. In China, yellow also symbolizes harvest. When crops ripe in autumn, fields turn entirely golden. People celebrates the good harvest happily.

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