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[IELTS] 如何利用上下义词快速解题
boboju人气2624日期16/07/27

Baekeland's invention, although treated with disdain in its early years, went on to enjoy an unparalleled popularity which lasted throughout the first half of the twentieth century. It became the wonder product of the new world of industrial expansion - 'the material of a thousand uses,. Being both non-porous and heat-resistant, Bakelite kitchen goods were promoted as being germ-free and sterilisable. Electrical manufacturers seized on its insulating properties, and consumers everywhere relished its dazzling array of shades, delighted that they were now, at last, no longer restricted to the wood tones and drab browns of the pre-plastic era. It then fell from favour again during the 1950s, and was despised and destroyed in vast quantities. Recently, however, it has been experiencing something of a renaissance, with renewed demand for original Bakelite objects in the collectors' marketplace, and museums, societies and dedicated individuals once again appreciating the style and originality of this innovative material.
实际上,此题就运用了上义词替换下义词这一伎俩。我们可以通过colours 定位到原文这样的信息‘ no longer restricted to the wood tones and drab browns of the pre-plastic era’。也就是将colours替换了文中大部分学员比较熟悉browns。由于看出limit与restrict的替换难度并不大,那么此题与原文中no longer矛盾,选FALSE也就很轻松了。
其实,不仅仅是判断题,在填空题中的应用也让不少学员尝到很多苦头。我们再看一个例子,选自C6-P29-Q40 ...........produce is particularly expensive. 此题在原文中的定位难度也不大,很多学员都定位了如下的原文内容。
Provisions available in local shops have to be flown into Nunavut on one of the most costly air networks in the world, or brought by supply ship during the few ice-free weeks of summer. It would cost a family around £7,000 a year to replace meat they obtained themselves through hunting with imported meat.
但是,具体答案定位哪一句,很多同学犯了难,原文中根本就没有与答案最为密切的produce。我们再仔细分析一下,原来题干中的produce (农产品)可以替换原文中meat,答案也就是imported了。在这里,我只能说不熟悉这种命题思路的烤鸭被害惨了。
其实,相比以上两种题型,上义词与下义词在段落信息配对题的出现频率更高。比如,C9-P93-Q18:
reference to a possible link between culture and a particular form of behaviour, 其中‘a particular form of behaviour’替换了原文H段的‘a struggle over toy’, 再比如C9-P43-Q5: a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others,其中‘medical conditions’替换了原文D段的 ‘hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit disorders (ADD/ADHD)’。

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