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语法结构——时态
yang4664371人气4551日期05/11/20

一般现在时表示现在、经常或习惯的动作或状态和普遍现象、常识或客观真理;一般过去时用于过去某一时间内发生的或过去习惯性的动作或状态;一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,将来打算做的事情;现在完成时表示过去发生的动作造成目前的结果和对现在造成的影响或表示从过去延续至今的动作、状态和习惯等;将来完成时表示将来某时之前业已完成或发生的事情;过去完成时表示过去某时间之前已经发生的动作或状况,即过去的过去。注意每一种时态与其他时态的交叉使用情况。英语共有十六种时态,其表现形式如下(以study为例):



































 


一般时


进行时


完成时


完成进行时


现在


study
studies


am studying
is studying
are studying


have studied
has studied


have been studying
has been studying


过去


studied


was studying
were studying


had studied


had been studying


将来


shall study
will study


shall be studying
will be studying


shall have studied
will have studied


shall have been studying
will have been studying


过去将来


should study
would study


should be studying
would be studying


should have studied
would have studied


should have been studying
would have been studying



考试中出现的一般有以下几种。


I、一般现在时


一、表示一般性或经常发生的动作或状态


1) In general [A] , newspapers emphasize current news, whereas [B] magazines dealt [C] more with [D] background materials.


2) The adult mosquito usually lives for about [A] thirty days, although [B] the life span varied [C] widely with temperature, humidity, and other [D] factors of the environment.


3) Industrial buyers [A] are responsible [B] for supplying [C] the goods and services that an organization required [D] for its operations.

二、表示习惯性动作和状态或普遍的现象或常识


4) It is an accepted [A] custom in west countries that [B] men removed [C] their hats when a woman enters [D] the room.


5) Certain layers of the atmosphere have special names .


[A]which indicated their character properties
[B]whose characteristic properties were indicating
[C]what characterize their indicated properties
[D]that indicate their characteristic properties

三、表示客观事实、客观规律和客观真理。在宾语从句中,即使主句的谓语动词用了过去时,只要从句表示的是客观真理,从句的谓语动词也要用一般现在时


6) The teacher told them since [A] light travels faster than [B] sound, lightning appeared [C] to go before [D] thunder.


7) As [A] a child, I was told that [B] the planet earth, which has [C] its own satellite, the moon, moved [D] round the sun.

四、祈使句必须用动词原形,其否定结构用“don't+动词原形”,如:Go and fetch some water. / Don't do that.

五、在反义疑问句中,如果主句用肯定句,那么,反问句用否定形式;如果主句用否定形式,那么,反问句就用肯定形式。而且前后在时态上要一致。但祈使疑问句用won't you?进行反问。如:See a film tonight, won't you?


注:① 祈使句后边可用附加疑问句,以加强语气。如果祈使句用肯定形式,附加疑问句用否定形式;如果祈使句用否定形式,附加句用肯定形式;如: Come here next Sunday, won't you? / Don't tell it to anyone, will you? ② 但如果祈使句的前一句有了表示强烈[ZZ(]肯定[ZZ)]的语言环境,即使祈使句用了肯定形式,其附加成分也可以用“will you”(表示肯定,如果是在口语中用降调)。如:Give me the book, will you?

六、例题解析


1) C错。“in general”表示“一般”,所以主句用一般现在时,并列从句的谓语也是表示一般性,所以C处也应用一般现在时,故将其改为deal,而不是过去时dealt。


2) C错。本句的主从句中的“usually”表示“经常”,用一般现在时;而让步状语从句的谓语也是表示同一情况,所以也应当用一般现在时。故把C处的 varied改为varies。


3) D错。本句表述的是一般状况,前面的主句用的是现在时,后面的定语从句也应用现在时,应将required改为 requires。


4) C错。这里“it”是形式主语,代表主语从句“that…”,既然主句表示习惯(“an accepted custom”),那么谓语就应当用一般现在时,而不能用过去时。所以将C处的removed改为remove。


5) D为正确答案。本句表述的也是自然现象,主句和从句都应用一般现在时,故A和B都不对;C不合语法,以“what”引导的从句不能作定语,只有D正确,这里“that”引导定语从句,修饰前边的名词“names”。


6) C错。本句宾语从句所表述的是客观事实,即“…light travels faster than sound,”虽然主句谓语动词用的是过去式“told”,从句也要用一般现在时,所以把C处的appeared改为appears。


7) D错。虽然主句的主语用了过去时“was told”,其宾语从句表示的是“地球绕着太阳转”这一客观规律,所以将D处的moved改为moves。注意:不能将C处的has改为had,因为这也是表示客观事实,也得用一般现在时。


II一般过去时


一、一般过去时主要表示过去某一时刻发生的动作或情况,句中通常有表示过去某一时刻的状语 a day ago, last week, in 1996, during the night, in anceint times等,表示“过多少时间之后”用after, 但在现在完成时中用in, 如in the past few years等


1) How many people remember [A] listening [B] to Orson Welles' 1938 radio broadcast [C] , “ The War of the Worlds”, which convince [D] thousands that space aliens(外星人) had invaded the Earth?


2) The instructor had gone over [A] the problems many times [B] before [C] the students will take [D] the final examination.


3) Anthropologists agree [A] that our primitive ancestors [B] who inhabit [C] the tropics probably have natural protection against [D] the Sun.

二、例题解析


1) D错,改用过去时 convinced,因此处表述的是过去(1938年)所发生的情况,而现在则不是这样。“which”引导的从句修饰“…1938 radio breadcast”。


2) D错。由于主句使用的是过去完成时,表示在 过去 的某一动作发生之前,本句中的“before…”从句引导一个表示过去的时间状语。所以状语从句的谓语应用过去时态,应把将来时“will take”改为一般过去时took,以便和主句的过去完成时呼应。


3) C错,改为inhabited,既然是“我们的祖先 居住 的热带地区”,“居住”这一动作发生在过去,所以要用过去时。这里也要提醒大家:做语法题不仅要看特定的提示词如时间状语等,关键还在于读懂句子的意思。如,虽然本句的主语还是同一表示过去的名词主语“primitive ancestors”,其谓语动词就用现在时“have”。“我们的祖先有……”,这里的“有”,是现在我们看来的一种事实,所以用一般现在时。


III 一般将来时


一、一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或状况


1) But the weather experts [A] are now paying more attention to West Antarctic, which may be affected [B] by only a few degrees of warming: in other words, by a warming on the scale that would [C] possibly take place in the next fifty years from the burning [D] of fuels.(92年阅读理解题)


2) If traffic problems are not solved soon [A] , driving [B] in [C] cities becomes [D] impossible.

二、在表示时间和条件的状语从句中,一般现在时代替一般将来时。这些时间副词有when, as soon as等,表示条件的连词有if,as long as等。


3 ) A desert area that has been [A] without water [B] for six years will still [C] bloom when rain will come [D] .


4) Come and see me whenever .(84年考题)
[A] you are convenient [B] you will be convenient
[C] it is convenient to you[D] it will be convenient to you


5) The task is extremely difficult. If no one able to do it, we will have to find somebody else.


[A] were
[B] was
[C] is
[D] would


注意:如果这些副词或连词引导的是名词从句作宾语而不是状语从句时,这些名词从句的谓语动词则用该用的时态:I don't know when he will come.而且表示将来的助动词will还可以用以条件从句中,译为“愿意、肯”等。

三、一些表示方向及变化的瞬间动词可用进行时或现在时表示将要发生的动作


We leave (are leaving) for California the day after tomorrow.我们(计划)后天动身去加利福尼亚州。


May I have your attention please. The plane for Wuhan is about to take off.请注意,飞往武汉的飞机就要起飞了。

四、另外,“be +to +动词原形”也可表示打算做的事,还可表示责任、意向和可能性


You are to follow the doctor’s advice.你应遵从医嘱。


No shelter was to be seen.找不到避难处。

五、例题解析


1) C错,改为will。本题有表示将来的时间状语“in the next fifty years…”,所以谓语用一般将来时。


2) D错。由于从句中有表示时间的状语“soon”(不久,不远的将来),主句的谓语也是在这一时间发生,所以要用将来时,那么D改为will become。


3) D错。本句主语是A desert area…will still bloom,状语从句是由when引导,表示“雨季到来时”,从句的谓语应用一般现在时表示将来,所以将C处的will come改为comes。


4) 正确答案为C。本题除了时态上的问题(即不用一般将来时)之外还涉及到主语和它的表语的逻辑问题。根据上述语法特点,首先排除B和D;题中“convenient”是“方便的”之意。虽然汉语“在你方便的时候”,似乎“方便”的主语是“你”,但在英语中就不是那么回事儿,“convenient”的英文的解释是“(sth) suited to personal ease or comfort or to easy performance of some act or function”(某事或物对某人来说感到舒适或容易作),其主语应是“物”而不是“人”。本题应选C。所以学英语时,不仅要懂英语单词的汉语译文,更重要的是掌握英语单词的内涵与用法。建议身边备一个“英英”字典,如Longman Dictionary of Comtempory English


5) C为正确答案。理由同上。

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